Modélisation Quantique


La modélisation quantique est une discipline émergente qui applique les idées, les méthodes et les modèles développés dans la physique quantique pour les appliquer dans de nouveaux domaines des sciences humaines et cognitives. En effet, le formalisme mathématique de la théorie quantique peut être transposé à d'autres domaines comme l'économie, l'interaction sociale, la psychologie, l'intelligence artificielle, la linguistique, la recherche d'information, les sciences sociales, la biologie, l'apprentissage automatique, la logique, etc. De plus, beaucoup de propriétés clés des systèmes quantiques comme la non-commutativité des mesures, l'indétermination, la non-séparabilité, la présence d'inégalités probabilistes non classiques, peuvent être mises en évidence dans les systèmes évoqués plus haut.
Rappelons enfin que l'atelier "Quantum Interaction" propose un forum international annuel pour des rencontres entre chercheurs en "sciences exactes" et en "sciences humaines" qui développent la modélisation quantique.
Ce groupe de travail parisien peut être considéré comme un de ses compléments à l'échelle locale.
Prochaine réunion le lundi 13 décembre 2021                                 à 14h heure de Paris
La séance se tiendra à l'Institut des Systèmes Complexes.

Hervé Zwirn
Directeur de Recherche au CNRS

"Is the Past Determined?"

Résumé d'auteur
In a recent paper, I argued against backward in time effects used by several authors to explain delayed choice experiments. I gave an explanation showing that there is no physical influence propagating from the present to the past and modifying the state of the system at a time previous to the measurement. However, though the solution is straightforward in the case of delayed choice experiments involving only one particle, it is subtler in the case of experiments involving two entangled particles because they give rise to EPR-like situations. Considering that a measurement is not an actual change of the physical state of a system and is relative to the observer allows to understand that there is neither backward in time effects nor instantaneous collapse of the second system when the first one is measured, as is often postulated. This allows also to get rid of any nonlocality. I want to go further into the consequences of this way of considering the measurement, that I have called Convivial Solipsism, and show that even if, in the usual sense, there is no physical effect of the present or of the future on the past, we must nevertheless consider that the observer’s past is sometimes not entirely determined and that it becomes determined only when certain measurements are done latter. This apparent contradiction disappears if one understand that each observer builds, through her own measurements, her own world (that I call the phenomenal world in Convivial Solipsism) which is different from what we are used to consider as the common world shared by everybody.
References:
1. Zwirn, H. The Measurement Problem: Decoherence and Convivial Solipsism. Found. Phys., Vol. 46, p.635 (2016).
2. Zwirn, H.: Delayed choice, complementarity, entanglement and measurement. Phys. Essays. 30, 3 (2017).
3. Zwirn, H. Non Locality versus modified realism. Found. Phys., Vol. 50, pp. 1–26 (2020).
4. Zwirn, H. Is the Past Determined? Found. Phys., Vol. 51, 57 (2021).

Animation :   François Dubois, francois - dot - dubois - at - lecnam - dot - net,
                      Zeno Toffano, zeno - dot - toffano - at - centrale supelec - dot - fr
mise à jour : 02 novembre 2021